Shame on you, MTV, say the Greek-Americans

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“Growing up Greek ” is a gross misrepresentation of what it means to Grow up Greek.  What makes us Greek is PRIDE. Pride for our faith, family and each other.  This show lessens us to look like Jersey Shore!  We have worked hard to not have that stereotype.  We are an ethnicity strong in family and Orthodoxy, says Hellas.Frappe.blogspot . This show is NOT who we are and we are embarrassed.

Watch sneak peek by clicking HERE

“Growing Up Greek” is being accused by many expatriates as showing a shallow, over popularized and defamatory side of the Greek American Community.

MTV’s reality show Growing Up Greek has garnered the attention of the Greeks in the US before it has even gone live! The “extreme” character and the parallels with the controversial – but popular – Jersey Shore, have led to an electronic signature collection for the cancellation of the project! On their part, supporters believe that it shows a side of Greek-American Diaspora and advise the public to see it,

     “Please do not do it. I saw the trailer and it’s a shame. It does not represent us!”.

The social media dialogue with hundreds of people involved is be unstoppable … and in some cases … beyond curteous.

Expatriates who commented on the trailer have expressed intense dissatisfaction with the content, believing the Greek American community is being discredited posted Hellas.frappe.blogspot

Please click here to be directed to the petition:



“MTV, apparently not satisfied with turning Italian-Americans into a national joke, is now launching a stereotype-laden “reality show” about Greek-Americans called “Growing Up Greek.”

The show is so far only a single episode, but it’s likely the secret nascence of an entire series IMHO.

“Growing Up Greek” is set in the very-Greek Florida city of Tarpon Springs. Here’s MTV’s description of the place, and show:

“[A]n idyllic and picturesque all-Greek town, where everyone is either dating, related, or brawling each other. Family means everything here; even the overbearing parents and grandparents can get outrageous and festive.”

Those funny Greeks! They’re in-bred, violent, and their parents and grandparents are overbearing bullies (presumably because they’re in-bred and violent too.)

And, according to the promo video for the series. when those loud, obnoxious Greeks aren’t setting cheese on fire, they’re breaking plates and throwing money around while dancing (something I have never seen an actual Greek ever do, other than the money thing that might happen at a weddding as a donation for the bride and groom). Oh the hilarity!

All that’s missing is some jokes about anal sex, and our last names sounding like a disease. (Aravosis? I thought you said halitosis!)

From the promo, we see that the show even has a Snooki-like charachter who, just like Snooki, is overweight and dresses in really-tight, Jersey-Shore style “I can’t believe she’s wearing that” clothes. (Snooki is a character from MTV’s reality show “Jersey Shore,” that regularly presented Italian-Americans as under-educated, oversexed, inebriated buffoons.), wrote the


AHEPA strongly reacted , by releasing its message on December 4: “The American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association is deeply concerned with the production of MTV’s latest show…”

A message from the
AHEPA Headquarters

Thursday, December 04, 2014

Contact: AHEPA Headquarters
Phone: (202) 232-6300

 AHEPA Statement on MTV’s “Growing Up Greek” Show 


WASHINGTON, DC – National President Phillip T. Frangos has issued the following statement on the MTV’s show “Growing Up Greek,” which premiered this week:
“The American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association is deeply concerned with the production of MTV’s latest show, ‘Growing Up Greek,’ which is an unfortunate reinvention of its ‘Jersey Shore’ series.

“‘Growing Up Greek’ is a gross misrepresentation of the experience of growing up in a Greek American family and within the Greek American community. The show is problematic because it portrays characters as being representative of the Greek American community based upon negative stereotyping. If anything, the characters are more suited for an episode of The Jerry Springer Show than portraying what it is truly like to grow up Greek. In the spirit of ‘Jersey Shore,’ MTV is aiming to exploit raucous and unruly behavior for a ratings boost and the merchandizing potential that comes with it.

“The show also performs a tremendous disservice to the city in which it is set, the storied location of Tarpon Springs’ ‘Greektown.’ In July, the ‘Greektown’ district earned a special recognition as the first place in Florida listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a Traditional Cultural Property thanks in large part to the hard work ethic of Greek immigrants on the sponge docks dating back to the early 1900s. Sadly, this distinction has been lost on the producers who have chosen irresponsibility to tarnish Tarpon Springs’ rich, cultural history with this distorted portrayal of its contemporary Greek American community.

“Therefore, we call on MTV to cancel the show, and we strongly urge its sponsors to withdraw their support of it. We applaud the online petition that is being circulated and encourage the community to support it as more than 5,000 individuals have already done so. However, the most effective action one can take is to simply not watch the show and to not patronize the show’s sponsors.”

Frangos added:

“Throughout the span of its history, AHEPA has served as a vital vehicle for the progressive development and emergence of American citizens of Greek heritage into every facet of society: government, business, education, and the arts. This fulfillment illustrates the promise of the American Dream and symbolizes the hard work ethic of our immigrant forbearers who labored to achieve that dream with the principles of Hellenism rooted deep in their hearts. This is the reality of the Greek American experience.

“As American citizens of Greek heritage and Philhellenes, we are proud of the contributions the ancient Greeks gifted to Western Civilization. As Americans, we share many of the values put forth by them: civic responsibility, philanthropy, education, family and individual excellence, and the ideals of democracy. This is the essence of our heritage. This is what it means to ‘grow up Greek.'”

Founded in 1922 in Atlanta, Georgia, to protect individuals from the evils of bigotry and discrimination, AHEPA is the largest and oldest grassroots association of American citizens of Greek heritage and Philhellenes with more than 400 chapters across the United States, Canada, and Europe. The mission of AHEPA is to promote the ancient Greek ideals of Education, Philanthropy, Civic Responsibility, and Family and Individual Excellence through community service and volunteerism.
For more information about AHEPA, please visit or contact AHEPA Headquarters, 202-232-6300.

Any idea of the real Greek ginger? Nature magazine knows, indeed by ancient DNA !

Researchers were able to retrieve DNA from ancient Greek amphorae and use it to determine what the jars once held. The genetic Material of the Greek Trade History.Ginger among others was travelling the world from Greece in Ancient times

Researchers were able to retrieve DNA from ancient Greek amphorae and use it to determine what the jars once held. The genetic Material of the Greek Trade History.Ginger among others was travelling the world from Greece in Ancient times

Greek Amphora , a DNA  pool for the goods of Ancient Greek Trade

Greek Amphora , a DNA pool for the goods of Ancient Greek Trade

The analysis of nine ancient amphorae revealed important evidence concerning trading in ancient Greece. Brought to the sea surface near Corfu, the amphorae were sent to the University of Lund in Sweden where they underwent DNA analysis.

And yes, you will be surprised !

Ginger Exports by the Ancient Greeks

As nature magazine recently published , new scientific research by an American and to  Greek scientists shows  that the Ancient Greeks did not trade just wine and olive oil, but a plethora of products like legumes, mint, and even ginger.

The analysis of nine ancient amphorae revealed important evidence concerning trading in ancient Greece. Brought to the sea surface near Corfu, the amphorae were sent to the University of Lund in Sweden where they underwent DNA analysis.

Brendan Foley of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Massachusetts, says that 95% of scientific bibliography mentions wine as the only product that the ancient Greeks transported by amphorae.

Foley completed genetic analysis of 9 amphorae that were dated from the 5th to the 3rd century BC with the help of Dimitris Kourkoumelis and Theotokis Theodoulou, archeologists in the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities in Athens. As was expected, DNA evidence of grapes was found in 5 of the 9 amphorae while 6 amphorae also showed DNA evidence of olives.

What was surprising though was the existence of the DNA of legumes, ginger, nuts, juniper as well as herbs like mint, thyme and oregano. The fact that different kinds of DNA were found in the same amphorae leads researchers to conclude that the same amphorae would have been used to transport different products each time.

The success of amphorae DNA analysis has researchers planning to repeat their analysis on amphorae from the 3rd century BC that were recovered from a shipwreck in Kyrenia in Cyprus. The same methodology can, in the future, be used on household amphorae and in small vessels containing cosmetics and medicine.

DNA analysis will give new insight on was was being traded in ancient times as well as how trade in ancient Greece itself developed over time.

Source: ,

Who spoke of the first spices of the world? The father of “botanic”. Here in Greece. Lesvos island 350bC

Ancient Athens, of the 6th century BC, was the busy trade centre at the confluence of Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Minoan cultures at the height of Greek colonisation of the Mediterranean. The philosophical thought of this period ranged freely through many subjects. Empedocles (490–430 BC) foreshadowed Darwinian evolutionary theory in a crude formulation of the mutability of species and natural selection.

The physician Hippocrates (460–370 BC) avoided the prevailing superstition of his day and approached healing by close observation and the test of experience.


At this time a genuine non-anthropocentric curiosity about plants emerged. The major works written about plants extended beyond the description of their medicinal uses to the topics of plant geography, morphology, physiology, nutrition, growth and reproduction.

Foremost among the scholars studying botany was Theophrastus of Eressus (Greek: Θεόφραστος; c. 371–287 BC) who has been frequently referred to as the ”Father of Botany”.

He was a student and close friend of Aristotle (384–322 BC) and succeeded him as head of the Lyceum (an educational establishment like a modern university) in Athens with its tradition of peripatetic philosophy. Aristotle’s special treatise on plants —θεωρία περὶ φυτῶν — is now lost, although there are many botanical observations scattered throughout his other writings (these have been assembled by Christian Wimmer in Phytologiae Aristotelicae Fragmenta, 1836) but they give little insight into his botanical thinking.The Lyceum prided itself in a tradition of systematic observation of causal connections, critical experiment and rational theorizing. Theophrastus challenged the superstitious medicine employed by the physicians of his day, called rhizotomi, and also the control over medicine exerted by priestly authority and tradition.

Together with Aristotle he had tutored Alexander the Great whose military conquests were carried out with all the scientific resources of the day, the Lyceum garden probably containing many botanical trophies collected during his campaigns as well as other explorations in distant lands.It was in this garden where he gained much of his plant knowledge.


Theophrastus’s major botanical works were the Enquiry into Plants (Historia Plantarum) and Causes of Plants (Causae Plantarum) which were his lecture notes for the Lyceum. The opening sentence of the Enquiry reads like a botanical manifesto: “We must consider the distinctive characters and the general nature of plants from the point of view of their morphology, their behaviour under external conditions, their mode of generation and the whole course of their life”.

The Enquiry is 9 books of “applied” botany dealing with the forms and classification of plants and economic botany, examining the techniques of agriculture (relationship of crops to soil, climate, water and habitat) and horticulture. He described some 500 plants in detail, often including descriptions of habitat and geographic distribution, and he recognised some plant groups that can be recognised as modern-day plant families.  He noted that plants could be annuals, perennials and  biennials, they were also either monocotyledons or dicotyledons and he also noticed the difference between determinate and indeterminate growth and details of floral structure including the degree of fusion of the petals, position of the ovary and more. These lecture notes of Theophrastus comprise the first clear exposition of the rudiments of plant anatomy, physiology, morphology and ecology — presented in a way that would not be matched for another eighteen centuries.

Today, one of the most brilliant works of scientific botanology  Greek flora is made by the Swedish Researches, who  …”never forgot his spicy  honeymoon , maybe” .(.!), since he came to Greece fist time for honeymoon in 1966. Half a century after, and his today’s extended scientific work, rises as unique, for Greece, as thatm, ancient one of the father of Botanic, Theofrastos .

Today: Immense wealth of the Greek Flora

Greece has 6000 plants, 750 of which are found nowhere else, according to Swedish botanical scientist Arne Strid, who has been studying Greek nature for 48 years. He has also discovered 20 new species of plants in the mountainous regions of the country.

He participates in the 10-tomme encyclopaedia “Flora Hellenica’, where all Greek plants are included, and he has taken part in the listing of the flora of the Prespes National Park.

It was 1964 when he first came to Greece, in the context of his doctoral dissertation, regarding the plants of the Aegean and for which he was awarded with the American prize Jesse M. Greenman. In 1966 he spent his honeymoon in our country and since then he has visited Greece 70 times.

among the 12 books he has published, the following are found:

-‘Mountain Flora of Greece’
-‘Wild flowers of Mount Olympus’
‘Atlas of the Aegean Flora’; a book that will be in the bookshops in 2013, enriched with distribution maps for the approximately 4000 species of plants that are found in the islands of the Aegean. It will contain information from the database the professor has created during the past 25 years.

Ancient Rome

Main article: Roman agriculture

The Romans contributed little to the foundations of botanical science laid by the ancient Greeks, but made a sound contribution to our knowledge of applied botany as agriculture. In works titled De Re Rustica four Roman writers contributed to a compendium Scriptores Rei Rusticae, published from the Renaissance on, which set out the principles and practice of agriculture. These authors were Cato (234–149 BC), Varro (116–27 BC) and, in particular, Columella (4–70 AD) and Palladius (4th century AD). Roman encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD) deals with plants in Books 12 to 26 of his 37-volume highly influential work Naturalis Historia in which he frequently quotes Theophrastus but with a lack of botanical insight although he does, nevertheless, draw a distinction between true botany on the one hand, and farming and medicine on the other.

It is estimated that at the time of the Roman Empire between 1300 and 1400 plants had been recorded in the West.

Medicinal plants of the early Middle Ages

Further information: Herbalism, Chinese medicine, Byzantine medicine, and Islamic medicine

The  Chinese after the Greeks in botanology of Ancient times…..

In Western Europe, after Theophrastus, botany passed through a bleak period of 1800 years when little progress was made and, indeed, many of the early insights were lost. As Europe entered the Middle Ages, a period of disorganised feudalism and indifference to learning, China, India and the Arab world enjoyed a golden age. Chinese philosophy had followed a similar path to that of the ancient Greeks. The Chinese dictionary-encyclopaedia Erh Ya probably dates from about 300 BC and describes about 334 plants classed as trees or shrubs, each with a common name and illustration. Between 100 and 1700 AD many new works on pharmaceutical botany were produced including encyclopaedic accounts and treatises compiled for the Chinese imperial court. These were free of superstition and myth with carefully researched descriptions and nomenclature; they included cultivation information and notes on economic and medicinal uses — and even elaborate monographs on ornamental plants. But there was no experimental method and no analysis of the plant sexual system, nutrition, or anatomy.

The 400-year period from the 9th to 13th centuries AD was the Islamic Renaissance, a time when Islamic culture and science thrived. Greco-Roman texts were preserved, copied and extended although new texts always emphasised the medicinal aspects of plants. Kurdish biologistĀbu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (828–896 AD) is known as the founder of Arabic botany; his Kitâb al-nabât (‘Book of Plants’) describes 637 species, discussing plant development from germination to senescence and including details of flowers and fruits.TheMutazilite philosopher and physician Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (c. 980–1037 AD) was another influential figure, his The Canon of Medicine being a landmark in the history of medicine treasured until the Enlightenment.

The Age of Herbals

In the European Middle Ages of the 15th and 16th centuries the lives of European citizens were based around agriculture but when printing arrived, with movable type and woodcut illustrations, it was not treatises on agriculture that were published, but lists of medicinal plants with descriptions of their properties or “virtues”. These first plant books, known as herbals showed that botany was still a part of medicine, as it had been for most of ancient history. Authors of herbals were often curators of university gardens,and most herbals were derivative compilations of classic texts, especially De Materia Medica. However, the need for accurate and detailed plant descriptions meant that some herbals were more botanical than medicinal.

Herbals contributed to botany by setting in train the science of plant description, classification, and botanical illustration. Up to the 17th century botany and medicine were one and the same but those books emphasising medicinal aspects eventually omitted the plant lore to become modern pharmacopoeias; those that omitted the medicine became more botanical and evolved into the modern compilations of plant descriptions we call Floras. These were often backed by specimens deposited in a herbarium which was a collection of dried plants that verified the plant descriptions given in the Floras. The transition from herbal to Flora marked the final separation of botany from medicine.

1550–1800 The Renaissance and Enlightenment

The revival of learning during the European Renaissance renewed interest in plants. The church, feudal aristocracy and an increasingly influential merchant class that supported science and the arts, now jostled in a world of increasing trade. Sea voyages of exploration returned botanical treasures to the large public, private, and newly established botanic gardens, and introduced an eager population to novel crops, drugs and spices from Asia, the East Indies and the New World.

The number of scientific publications increased. In England, for example, scientific communication and causes were facilitated by learned societies like Royal Society (founded in 1660) and the Linnaean Society (founded in 1788): there was also the support and activities of botanical institutions like the Jardin du Roi in Paris, Chelsea Physic Garden, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, and the Oxford and Cambridge Botanic Gardens, as well as the influence of renowned private gardens and wealthy entrepreneurial nurserymen.By the early 17th century the number of plants described in Europe had risen to about 6000. The 18th century Enlightenment values of reason and science coupled with new voyages to distant lands instigating another phase of encyclopaedic plant identification, nomenclature, description and illustration, “flower painting” possibly at its best in this period of history.

Botanology, with “class”

During the 18th century botany was one of the few sciences considered appropriate for genteel educated women.  Cultural authorities argued that education through botany created culturally and scientifically aware citizens, part of the thrust for ‘improvement’ that characterised the Enlightenment. However, in the early 19th century with the recognition of botany as an official science women were again excluded from the discipline.

Botanical gardens and herbaria

A 16th century print of the Botanical Garden of Padova (Garden of the Simples) — the oldest academic botanic garden that is still in its original location

From Herbal to Flora

Plant classification systems of the 17th and 18th centuries now related plants to one another and not to man, marking a return to the non-anthropocentric botanical science promoted by Theophrastus over 1500 years before. This approach coupled with the new Linnaean system of binomial nomenclature resulted in plant encyclopaedias without medicinal information called Floras that meticulously described and illustrated the plants growing in particular regions.

Botanical exploration

Konrad Gessner discovered many new plants while climbing the Swiss Alps. He proposed that there were groups or genera of plants. He said that each genus was composed of many species and that these were defined by similar flowers and fruits. This principle of organization laid the groundwork for future botanists; he wrote his important Historia Plantarum shortly before his death. Clusius journeyed throughout most of Western Europe, making discoveries in the vegetable kingdom along the way. He was the first to propose dividing plants into classes.

At the start of the 19th century the idea that plants could synthesise almost all their tissues from atmospheric gases had not yet emerged. The energy component of photosynthesis, the capture and storage of the Sun’s radiant energy in carbon bonds (a process on which all life depends) was first elucidated in 1847 by Mayer, but the details of how this was done would take many more years.Chlorophyll was named in 1818

Biogeography and ecology

The publication of Alfred Wegener’s (1880–1930) theory of continental drift 1912 gave additional impetus to comparative physiology and the study of biogeography while ecology in the 1930s contributed the important ideas of plant community, succession, community change, and energy flows. From 1940 to 1950 ecology matured to become an independent discipline as Eugene Odum (1913–2002) formulated many of the concepts of ecosystem ecology, emphasising relationships between groups of organisms (especially material and energy relationships) as key factors in the field. Building on the extensive earlier work of Alphonse de Candolle, Nikolai Vavilov (1887–1943) from 1914 to 1940 produced accounts of the geography, centres of origin, and evolutionary history of economic plants.

sources: ,

The Mediterranean diet Guru, Harvard Prof. of Epidemiology Demetris Trichopoulos passed away


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It is a grave loss in the Greek mind and soul, of the first and top mind of contemporary Greek science, that gave to Greece and the world so much.

Dimitris Trichopoulos a brilliant Academic and researcher of epidemiology science, shook the minds of the world in the past 20 years by establishing the MUST of Mediterranean diet in the Western world’s plate.

Demetris Trichopoulos, Professor of Epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health and Member of the Supreme Academy of Arts and Sciences in Athens passed away early Monday, December 1, 2014.

The University of Athens, announced the loss of one of its most distinguished members, an excellent university teacher with a rich body of work in research, authorship and teaching, with brilliant and acknowledged worldwide recognition

Demetris Trichopoulos was a Professor of Epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health and Member of the Supreme Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Education Minister Andreas Loverdos said the loss of Prof. Trichopoulos was a “sad event for the academic and research community worldwide and for all Greek society.”
“With his life and work he broadened the horizons of science, which he served, constantly promoting scientific knowledge and offering a great social service through the results of his research,” Loverdos added, noting that Trichopoulos’ career had shown the potential of Greek scientists and helped establish their good reputation.

Dimitris Trichopoulos has authored or co-authored over 650 publications (mainly research papers but also books, monographs, reports, reviews, commentaries, etc). His research work has contributed to the discovery of the role of passive smoking in the causation of lung cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease, the elucidation of the aetiology of hepatocellular carcimona, the quantification of the association between psychological stress and coronary heart disease and the identification of several dietary and other important risk factors in the aetiology of the number of cancers and other diseases.

The step-by-step Guidelines to Doctors, nurses and hospitals for Ebola incident management , released by the Greek CDC

By reminding to all the doctors and the nurses of the country that many of the signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and similar to those of many common infectious diseases, the Greek Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP), the Greek Ministry of Health and the National Health Operation Center  haven timely encouraged the Greek hospitals to prepare for managing patients with Ebola and other infectious diseases.

Every hospital, according to the updated Circular of the Greek CDC, (KEELPNO/ HCDCP), should ensure that it can detect a patient with Ebola, protect healthcare workers to safely care for the patient -by precisely following the Greek CDC updated released Guidelines- , and respond in a coordinated fashion.

Transmission can be prevented with appropriate infection control measures.

The practical and theoretical training of health professionals groups of the Greek National Hospitals and other officers will be complemented by the special training teams for Ebola Response of the Greek CDC, (KEELPNO / HCDCP ) and the National Health Operation Center, notifies the Greek CDC, adding step by step the procedures that should be followed.

According to the Greek CDC circulate, “if, suspect for investigation or probable case of Ebola is addressed, (based on the definitions of ECDC), to the outpatient clinics or to any national or private clinic of the country….” , the administration of the Hospital or Clinic and its medical staff are obliged to follow the procedures below:

a) The medical staff team of the clinic or Hospital has to be notified, or the administration or the medical staff in charge for Ebola Response.
b)The suspect of the incident has to be transferred as soon as possible to an isolated chamber, preferably close to the outpatient clinic.
c) The ambulance has to be immediately alerted, to transport the incident.
d) The Greek CDC, ( HCDC/KEELPNO) has to be notified immediately, also, and the National Health Operation Center.
e) individual staff, or other patients in the waiting or examination room, that might have come into contact with secretions of the suspect incident, have to be identified and disinfected.
f) In case the suspicious incident is in need of medical or nursing care (in the isolated chamber) until the arrival of the ambulance, care must be provided exclusively by the member or members of the Task Force medical staff of of the Hospital or Clinic.
g) If the suspected case is accompanied by relatives, friends, or other individuals , these persons have also to undergo a medical and contact history interview until the arrival of the ambulance and the Special Unit of the Greek CDC, (HCDCP/KEELPNO) a special place.

Although it is estimated that the risk of spread of the disease in Greece is small, and even though Greece is not included in the list of Ebola high Risk countries, the aim of the Greek CDC and the Greek Ministry of Health is to provide Full Information and Awareness to all the medical staff and nurses of the Hospitals of the country for the appropriate and safe  management of an incident.

The Greek  CDC, HDCP, keeps underlining and reminding that in case of suspected hemorrhagic fever,

the suspected case should be indicated by immediate declaration statement to KEELPNO.

All necessary measures should be taken for the prevention of the spread of infection.

Samples from the patient taken and sent for laboratory confirmation to the First Department of Microbiology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Suspected hemorrhagic fever should be placed in case if a  patient with conventional clinical picture and history of travel to areas that have reported outbreaks of the disease, taking into account the incubation period of 21 days, the history-of-contacts-and travel report and any report of unprotected direct contact with blood, secretions, or other body fluids of patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever or infected animal.

A  couple of public hospitals, among them the Amalia Fleming in northern Athens, have been put on standby to deal with an Ebola outbreak in Greece while medical specialists have been dispatched to the country’s main entry points in a bid to contain possible arrival of the deadly disease, authorities said Friday.

Thermal cameras have been put at the airports even though Greece has no direct flight and  visitors traveling from high-risk countries would be asked to fill in a questionnaire aimed at helping authorities filter out high-risk cases.

Posters have already been placed in Greek airports providing information, in Greek and English, about the Ebola virus.

KEELPNO has issued a warning against travel in Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Nigeria.